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Since oxygen is involved in most of the biological and chemical processes in aquatic environments, it is a crucial parameter to measure. Oxygen can also be used as a tracer in oceanographic studies. Aanderaa revolutionized oceanographic oxygen monitoring/research with the introduction of oxygen Sensor in 2002. Applications range from shallow creeks to the deepest trenches, from tropical to in-ice/in-sediment measurements. More than 200 scientific papers have so far been published using these optodes, including publications on the oxygen sensor working principle. The oxygen sensor is designed to measure absolute oxygen concentration and % saturation. The sensor can be used from streams to deep sea, from fish farms to waste water and from polar ice areas to hydrothermal vents.
These sensors are based on the ability of selected substances to act as dynamic fluorescence quenchers. The fluorescent indicator is a special platinumporphyrin complex embedded in a gas permeable foil that is exposed to the surrounding water. This sensing foil is attached to a glass window providing optical access to the measuring system from inside a watertight housing. The sensing foil is excited by modulated blue light; the sensor measures the phase of the returned red light. For improved stability the sensor also performs a reference phase reading by use of a red LED that do not produce fluorescence in the foil. The sensor has an incorporated temperature thermistor which enables linearization and temperature compensation of the phase measurements to provide the absolute O2-concentration.
The lifetime-based luminescence quenching principle offers the following benefits:
Sensing Foil Considerations:
We offer 3 different types of foils on our optodes. The Pst3 & FDO701 sensing foils are protected by an optical isolation layer, making the foil extra rugged and insensitive to direct sunlight. The fast response sensing foil is not equipped with this layer; ambient light intensity higher than 15000 lux may cause erroneous readings. We recommend the more rugged and stable FDO701 foil in applications where fast response is not needed.
|Used with Seaguard: on top-end plate, on string or connected via cable||X||X*|
|Analog output, 0-5V||X||X|
|Analog output, 4-20mA||X|
|Real-time RS-232 output**||X||X||X||X|
|Electrical connection: 10-pin Lemo||X||X||X|
|Electrical connection: 8-pin Subconn||X|
*Only use 4330F if fast response oxygen, and/or fast response temperature is needed. The standard sensing foil is protected by an optical isolation layer which makes the foil extra rugged and insensitive to direct sunlight. The fast response sensing foil is not equipped with this layer; ambient light intensity higher than 15000 lux may cause erroneous readings. To avoid potential bleaching the fast response foil should be protected from ambient light when storing the sensor. We recommend the standard foil in applications where fast response time is not needed.
**Please note: All sensors use RS-232 for configuration.
AADI Real-Time Communication System
Sea to Space with NASA: use Aquaoptodes in Photosynthetron
Monitoring Japanese earthquake zones
AquaNet—standardized infrastructure for Lake Mesocosm studies
SeaGuard records 1014 days of data at Hawaiian deep-water coral site
Oxygen Optodes Get Even Better
Stability record for oxygen optodes
Water circulation in Wintershine fish tanks
Coral reef monitoring in the Sisters’ Islands Marine Park, Singapore
Aqua sensor is best in test — recommended by The Linde Group
The ocean is losing its breath
Step Change in Oxygen Measurements
Chemical Oceanography in the Arctic
Monitoring around World War II munition dump sites
Surface Water Measurements from Mobile Platforms
Water Current Info at Helsingborg Harbour
Barnakil, A Comprehensive Solution to the Biofouling Problem in Marine Waters
OceanSensor - Mission Improved In-Situ Sensors
Autonomous bottom landers - Study processes at the seafloor by incubation technique
Offshore wind power: Wind Turbine Platforms (Wind-Tu-Pla)
Oxygen AirSaturation Calculator
Connecting Upper Ocean Dissolved Gas Measurements from Gliders and a Profiling Mooring
Best practices — Aanderaa Oxygen Optodes
Mission Water: Farming the Ocean
Effects of simulated natural and massive resuspension in Loch Creran, Scotland
Seasonal and interannual variations - Posidonia metabolism
Trends in marine dissolved oxygen
New calibration equation for Oxygen Optodes
Evaluation of a lifetime-based Oxygen Optode
Oxygen Optode 4330, 4835 and 4831
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